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Кубче на Рубик: Магическа играчка

The Rubik’s Cube is the world’s smash hit toy. It’s actually straightforward, yet to address this enchanted toy, you want great fixation, foreknowledge, knowledge, and persistence.

The toy was made in 1974 by Hungarian Erno Rubik, an engineer, and teacher Erno Rubik. Then, at that point, he understands that this is a little toy that will assist him with expanding his focus, persistence, and knowledge.

It took Erno Rubik himself months to tackle the 3D square, which utilized various shadings on six sides made of wood. He licensed the antique in 1974.

Many toymakers have been drawn nearer to making this 3D shape a modern item, yet many have disregarded the toy. However, it required 5 years for the toy to become known to the rest of the world. During these 5 years, he has been selling Magic Rubik’s Cube in his own country only.

In any case, it was not until 1979, when Erno Rubik presented the Magic Cube at a worldwide toy show, that the item became known outside of Hungary.

В Rubik’s Cube, which started creation in 1980, has sold in excess of 10 million shapes worldwide in only 2 years.

It is said to have sold more than 350 million up until this point. Rubik’s Cube has won the toy of the year grant a few times.

This 3D square is accessible today in many tones, shapes, and structures.

Global contests for the quickest answer for the Rubik’s Cube are held each year, for which there is an association called the World Cube Association. In the primary cubic race held in 1982, Minhathai from the United States crushed Rubik’s Cube in 22.95 seconds to win the main title. The current record for the quickest arrangement of the Rubik’s Cube is right now held by Yusheng Du in 3.47 seconds.

One robot, nonetheless, addressed the Rubik’s Cube this year at an amazing velocity of 0.38 seconds.

At any rate this mysterious 3D square of many shadings proceeds with its victorious excursion even today.

How to solve Rubik’s Cube

rubik's cube solve

Numerous 3×3×3 Rubik’s Cube fans utilize documentation created by David Singmaster to indicate an arrangement of moves, alluded to as “Singmaster notation”. Its overall nature permits calculations to be written so that they can be applied to pay little mind to which side is assigned the top or how the shadings are coordinated on a specific 3D square.

F (Front): the side presently confronting the solver
B (Back): the side inverse the front
U (Up): the side above or on top of the front side
D (Down): the side inverse the top, under the Cube
L (Left): the side straightforwardly to one side of the front
R (Right): the side straightforwardly to one side of the front
f (Front two layers): the side confronting the solver and the comparing center layer
b (Back two layers): the side inverse the front and the comparing center layer
u (Up two layers): the top side and the comparing center layer
d (Down two layers): the base layer and the comparing center layer
l (Left two layers): the side to one side of the front and the comparing center layer
r (Right two layers): the side to one side of the front and the relating center layer
x (pivot): turn the whole Cube on R
y (pivot): turn the whole Cube on U
z (pivot): turn the whole Cube on F

At the point when an excellent image ( ′ ) follows a letter, it signifies an anticlockwise face turn; while a letter without a great image indicates a clockwise turn. These bearings are as one is checking out the predefined face. A letter followed by a 2 (every so often a superscript 2) means two turns or a 180-degree turn.

R is correct side clockwise, however, R is correct side anticlockwise. The letters x, y, and z are utilized to show that the whole Cube ought to be turned around one of its tomahawks, compared to R, U, and F turns individually. At the point when x, y, or z are prepared, it means that the solid shape should be turned the other way. At the point when they are squared, the solid shape should be turned 180 degrees.

The most well-known deviation from Singmaster documentation, and indeed the current authority standard, is to utilize “w”, for “wide”, rather than lowercase letters to address moves of two layers; hence, a move of Rw is identical to one of r.

For techniques utilizing the center, layer turns (especially corners-first strategies), there is a by and large acknowledged “MES” augmentation to the documentation where letters M, E, and S indicate center layer turns. It was utilized for example in Marc Waterman’s Algorithm.

M (Middle): the layer among L and R, turn course as L (hierarchical)
E (Equator): the layer among U and D, turn bearing as D (left-right)
S (Standing): the layer among F and B, turn bearing as F

The 4×4×4 and bigger 3D squares utilize drawn-out documentation to allude to the extra center layers. As a rule, capitalized letters (F B U D L R) allude to the furthest divides of the shape (called faces). Lowercase letters (f b u d l r) allude to the internal bits of the 3D square (called cuts).

A reference bullet (L*), a number before it (2L), or two layers in brackets (Ll), means to turn the two layers simultaneously (both the inward and the external left faces) For instance: (Rr)’ l2 f’ signifies to turn the two furthest right layers anticlockwise, then, at that point, the left internal layer two times, and afterward the inward front layer anticlockwise. Likewise, for blocks of 6×6×6 and bigger, moves of three layers are recorded by the number 3, for instance, 3L.

Elective documentation, Wolstenholme notation, is intended to make retaining groupings of moves more straightforward for fledglings. This documentation involves similar letters for faces aside from it replacing U with T (top), so that all are consonants.

The key contrast is the utilization of the vowels O, A, and I for clockwise, anticlockwise, and two times (180-degree) turns, which brings about word-like groupings like LOTA RATO LATA ROTI (identical to LU′ R′ U L′ U′ R U2 in Singmaster documentation).

The expansion of a C infers a revolution of the whole solid shape, so ROC is the clockwise turn of the block around its right face. Center layer moves are meant by adding an M to the relating face move, so RIM implies a 180-degree turn of the center layer nearby the R face.

One more piece of documentation showed up in the 1981 book The Simple Solution to Rubik’s Cube. Singmaster documentation was not generally known at the hour of distribution. The appearances were named Top (T), Bottom (B), Left (L), Right (R), Front (F), and Posterior (P), with + for clockwise, – for anticlockwise, and 2 for 180-degree turns.

One more piece of documentation showed up in the 1982 “The Ideal Solution” book for Rubik’s Revenge. Level planes were noted as tables, with table 1 or T1 beginning at the top.

Vertical front-to-back planes were noted as books, with book 1 or B1 beginning from the left. Vertical left to right planes was noted as windows, with windows 1 or W1 beginning at the front.

Involving the front face as a source of a perspective view, table moves were left or right, book drops were up or down, and window moves were clockwise or anticlockwise.

Rubik’s Cube solver program

The most move ideal internet-based Rubik’s Cube solver programs use Herbert Kociemba’s Two-Phase Algorithm which can regularly decide an answer of 20 actions or less. The client needs to set the shading design of the mixed shape, and the program returns the means needed to settle it.

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